Mapping Agro Ecological Zoning in Orontes Basin Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems GIS/RS Techniques

Mouhiddine Kalkha
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research/Hama Research Center Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Natural resourses
Aleppo University -July/2015


The purpose of this research was Mapping Agro Ecological Zoning in part under Syrian control from Orontes Basin using Techniques geographic information system (GIS) , remote sensing (RS), which it projection for landform, soil, hydrology, landuse and agro climate zoning for 17410 km² area The study area extend between latitude 361632.43 ο-375823.50ο N and longitude 33.7317.76ο- 36.8307.27ο E
Study resulting showed high variation in elevation, highest point is 2628m in Al-Karna and lowest point 0 m in Sea in Sudia Gulf. Spatial analyst showed that lowest elevation degrees in middle part of basin which elevation less than525m with percentage 51.4% from basin area.
study showed high variation in slope, the highest75% in southern part of basin,and the value of slope percentage decreased with north aspect, and the value of slope less than 5% in middle part, with area 16975km² with percentage79.4%.
while Mapping hydrology showed distributed Orontes Basin to 33 catchment, in addition to water network divided to 6 forms Mapping hydrology showed exist 15 drainage point and drainage line extend on river flow.
Mapping Land use using Maxliklhood method used in Visualizing imagine interpretation had done for photo using (ENVI 4.4) program Supervised classification had been done, land cover classed using Jeffries-Matusita Distance (JM) where accuracy was 88.44% and (Kappa Coefficient = 0.84).
Mapping agro climate zoning (ACZ) in Orontes basin according to Spatial analyst for climate factor which recorded in climate station which spread inside and outside basin which numbered 69 station during 1950-2009 , showed there was high difference in temperature degrees and amount of precipitation among zone of basin which average of mean precipitation annual ranged between 72-1663 mm while temperature for warmest month ranged between 15-39 C and mean temperature for coldest month ranged between5.1-(-3.9) C and mean evapotranspiration annual ranged between 849-2835 mm while geostatistical analysis showed that data did not distributed normally because high variation between the studied elements data . aridity index map showed that basin disturbed in five zone (arid, semi- arid, sub-humid, humid, per-humid).
Mapping Agro Climate Zoning (ACZ)in Orontes Basin that basin extend in four zone. The one have featured (arid, cool in winter, very warm in summer) and located in southern east part while second zone (semi-arid, cool in winter, very warm in summer ) and located in middle part and north part, the third zone(sub humid, cold in winter, warm in summer) located in middle and north part, and last zone(humid, cold in winter, mild in summer).
In addition to Agro-Ecological Zoning map distributed to 9 zone extended from arid to sub humid and Spatial analyst showed that 1 zone for rock outcrop but have high moisture and 2,3 zone irrigated crop required high moisture., and 4,5 zone for intensive irrigated crop, and 6 zone for rainfeid crop while7 zone for posture,, and 8,9 zone rock outcrop
Key words: landform, hydrology, soil, Land use, Agro Climate Zoning, Agro Ecological Zoning