The Effect of Sowing Dates and Potassium Fertilization on the Yield and the Quality of the Produced Essential Oil of Anise Plant ( pimpinella anisum .L)

Razan Hasani Al-Awak
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research-
Administration of Horticulture Research
Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University,
2010

Abstract

This research was carried out during 2006-2007 in two locations (Karahta and Jellin), which belong to GCSAR in order to study the influence of sowing dates and potassium fertilization rates on the yield of anise plant (pimpinella anisum.L ), the production, essential oil percentage, and anethole  percentage .
The anise seeds were sowed on three dates (15 Nov., 1 Jan., 15 Feb.), in experimental bloke while the potassium rates were (120 kg k2o.hec-1, 150 kg k2o.hec-1, 180 kg k2o.hec-1, and the control without potassium at all), experimental plots (2×3m), and 30 cm between the planting rows with three replicates, with factorial experimental design. Many parameters were studied on plant planting date, flowering date, maturity date, germination percentage, oil percentage, anethole percentage.
The results showed that there were significant differences (P≤0.05) between locations, sowing dates, potassium fertilization rates and interaction between them, regarding production, essential oil percentage, and anethole  percentage. The results showed that there were significant differences (P≤0.05) between sowing dates. The best sowing date was on 15 Feb which reflected in the yield and percentage of essential oil (1115 kg.hec-1 , 4.09 % respectively), while the best sowing date for anethole percentage was on15 nov,  which gave( 91.83 %).
The results also showed that potassium treatments affected significantly the yield of seeds, essential oil percentage and anethole percentage in the essential oil .The treatment of 120 kg.hec-1 revealed more effect on both seeds yield and essential oil and anethole percentage (1282 kg.hec-1 , 4.02%, 92.64%respectively ).

The results have shown that the production, essential oil, and anethole percentage obtained from Karahta were higher than those from Jellin (1072kg.hec-1 ,3.82%,88.03%respectively).
Generally, the best anise plant was in Karahta, in 120 kg k2o.hec-1 , and in 15 Feb sowing date regarding yield and essential oil production, and on 15 Nov. sowing date for anethole percentage.