Ecological and Phytosociological Study in Jabal Al-Wastani Region

Majd Aldeen Al-Ayobi
General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research-
(GCSAR), Idleb Research Center
Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University,
2009

Abstract

The mass of Al-Wastani  mountain lies eastern of Al-Rouge plain. It extends as an uninterrupted wall from Salqin in the north  up to Idleb – Jesr Al-Shoghour highway to the south, 40 km long from the north to the south and 3-4 km wide. The highest top of this mountain is /847/m.
-Administratively the Wastani mountain belong to both districts Harem and  Djesr  Al-Shoghour which in their turn belong to Idleb province.
The Wastani mountain is situated between 36—08² – 35—46² N latitude and between 36—29² – 36—23² E longitude.-The hydrological study deals and belongs to the secondary basin (Al-Rouge) which in its turn belongs to Orontes basin.
The parent rock mostly consisted of hard calcareous followed by calcareous-marl  with small plots of basaltic structures which are exploited. The soils are mostly of  terrarossa or sometimes brown.
The meteorological studies were conducted on the basis of figures and data gathered at Rouge station (Al-Balaa) in the vicinity of our study. The seasonal precipitation system is: Winter, Spring, Fall and Summer.
The region is situated between the Mediterranean high semi-arid bioclimatic and the low semi-fresh bioclimatic zone which coincide with the EU-Mediterranean vegetation.
The percentage of bituminous according to Gorzinsky equals to 32.79% and drought index according to De Martonne equals to: 10.39. Soil drought period was estimated to 177 days, extending between 22 April to 15 October. Atmospheric drought was also estimated  but to 217 days between the 1st of April to the 3rd of November.
The Evaporation transpiration ratio (ETR) according to Turk equals to 524.88 mm/year and yearly runoff to 53.72 mm/year.
The area is suffering from overgrazing mainly from goats which is considered predominant followed by sheep and cows. Another setback in the region is the high ratio of rocks. The soil is mainly Mediterranean red (Terrarossa) sometimes brown with structure mostly clay.
Seventy-seven readings were conducted  according to Braun-Blanquet method and they were distributed and assigned to different heights, and location considering the main parent rock by which nomination of the vegetation society  is given as the following:
Phillyreeto (mediae) – Quercetum calliprini  consisted of the predominant trees in the area: Quercus calliprinos Webb. and the following species:
Phillyrea media L. , Crataegus azarolus L., Jasminum fruticans L., Pistacia palaestina Boiss., Rhamnus palaestina Boiss.
This association assembled in the alliance Quercion calliprini in the order of Quercetalia ilicis  in the class of  Quercetea ilicis.
Based on the surveys conducted on the existed vegetation, a considerable deterioration of the species in this region was observed.342 wild species was determined in the region, belonging to 225 genus which lead to generic coefficient equal to 66%. Some agro-forestry systems exist in the area mostly with oak and olive trees.Many  botanical species exist in the area which could positively  contribute to the development of different fields such as: edible, grazing, medicinal, ornamental and industrial.
The area can be improved by (i) Protecting it from overgrazing and logging; (ii) encouraging and supporting local population in their activities to ensure sufficient income, so that their activities can be safe for the environment and the forest.