Study of the Effect of the Substrate on the Growth and Production of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

Luna Mohsen Ahmad
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research-
(GCSAR) / Horticulture Research Administration
Faculty of Agriculture – Tishreen University,
2010

Abstract

The effect of seven substrates (wheat straw, hay, corncobs, cotton wastes, corncobs 50% + wheat straw 50%, cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50% and sawdust 50% + wheat straw 50%) on the growth, yield, the biological efficiency, the effect of the substrates on the chemical composition of mushroom and the effect of mushroom on the composition of the substrates, on oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus  strains: Hk-35 and P3015, from Italy, have been studied. The hay is the standard substrate.
Results showed that the  growth on the compound substrates is shorter than the growth on pure ones, the yield of the corncobs substrate and the cotton wastes is earlier when wheat straw was added for the two strains, The growth of the strain Hk-35 is faster than the growth of the strain P3015 on all the studied substrates except the substrate sawdust 50% + wheat straw 50%.
The difference of incubation period affected on the yield starting period. It start in the day 22 after spawning on the hay substrate in the strain Hk-35, so this substrate has a significant superiority over all the studied  substrates. For the strain P3015, the first yield was on the cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50% substrate in the day 27 after spawning, and in the day 41 after spawning on the corncobs substrate.
On the site of the yield, for the strain HK-35, the wheat straw substrate has a significant superiority on all the studied substrates except the hay substrate where the productivity difference is insignificant. The yield of wheat straw substrate is 2.17 kg/bag content 7kg (weight of wet substrate) with 86.80% biological efficiency. The hay substrate has significant superiority over the substrates: cotton wastes, corncobs, corncobs 50% + wheat straw 50% and sawdust 50% + wheat straw 50%, where its yield was 2.08 kg/bag with 83.20% biological efficiency.
For the strain P3015, the wheat straw substrate has a significant
superiority on all the studied substrates with 83.60% biological efficiency, and the hay substrate has a significant superiority on all the studied substrates with 80.00% biological efficiency, and the lowest biological efficiency is for the sawdust 50% + wheat straw 50% substrate.
Also the tow studied strains has an additional yield on the substrates: corncobs 50% + wheat straw 50% and cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50% equal (4.49% and 5.26%) and (4.38% and 4.97%) for the two strains Hk-35 and P3015 respectively comparatively with only pure substrates: corncobs and cotton wastes.
Results showed that the chemical composition of the fruitbodies for the tow strains is differ widely according to the content of the substrates. The content of protein of the fruitbodies which grow on the substrates: cotton wastes and corncobs is the highest for the two strains HK-35 and P3015 respectively, and the lowest content of protein is in the mushroom which grow on the substrates: wheat straw and hay for the two strains HK-35 and P3015 respectively.
The analysis of the strain HK-35s fruitbodies which grow on the compound substrates was richest of ash, fiber, Na, Mg, Ca, Cu and Zn than of the pure substrates, contrary of the content of N, and the content of P, K and Mn is the highest when the strains grow on the cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50% and corncobs substrates from the growth on cotton wastes and corncobs 50% + wheat straw 50%  substrates contrary of the content of Fe.
The content of dry matter, fiber and Cu for the strain P3015 is the highest in the fruitbodies which grow on the compound substrates than the fruitbodies which grow on the pure substrates, contrary of the content of carbohydrate, N, P and Zn. The content of ash, K, Mn, and Na is the highest in the fruitbodies which grow on the cotton wastes and corncobs 50% + wheat straw 50% than in the fruitbodies which grow on the corncobs and cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50% substrates.
In general, the mushroom which grow on hay and wheat straw is content the lowest nutritional elements from the other substrates.
The chemical analysis of substrates before and after the harvest  showed that the content of dry matter, fiber, K, P, Fe and Mn (except the hay substrate) and the content of  fiber, K, P, Fe and Mn is reduced after the harvest for the two strains Hk-35 and P3015 respectively. And the content of protein in all the substrates increased except the corncobs and corncobs 50% + wheat straw 50% substrates, and the content of ash in all the substrates after the harvest of the tow strains is increased.
The content of carbohydrate is differ variously in the substrates after the harvest of the tow strains. It increased in the hay and wheat straw substrates after the harvest of the tow strains, and in the substrate  sawdust  50% + wheat straw 50% and in the tow substrates corncobs 50% + wheat straw 50% and cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50% for the two strains Hk-35 and P3015 respectively.
The content of calcium and copper in the substrates of the strain HK-35 increased, except the substrate cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50% where it decreased after the harvest. And the content of magnesium and zinc is increased in the substrates: hay, wheat straw and sawdust 50% + wheat straw 50%, and also the content of zinc in the substrates: corncobs and corncobs 50% + wheat straw 50%, while decreased in the substrates: cotton wastes  and  cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50% but the content of  magnesium decreased in this substrates.
The content of magnesium in the substrates of the strain P3015 is increased except the substrates: cotton wastes  and  cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50%. And the content of calcium, copper and zinc in the substrates: hay, wheat straw and sawdust 50% + wheat straw 50% is increased, and decreased in the substrates: corncobs and  cotton wastes 50% + wheat straw 50%. The content of calcium and copper in the cotton wastes substrate is decreased and increased in the  corncobs 50% + wheat straw 50% substrate contrary of the content of zinc.
The color of the fruitbodies which grow on the substrate cotton wastes is a little bit deeper than the color of the fruitbodies which grow on the other substrates. And the test of mushroom which grow on the hay and wheat straw substrates is better than the test of mushroom which grow on the other substrates.