Description and Evaluation of Some Local Tomato Cultivars in Sweida

Faten Al-Safadi
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research-
Sweida  Research Center
Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University,
2010

Abstract

Ten varieties of local tomato planted in Syria from the seed stage to the maturity stage have been described and evaluated according to the (Descriptors for tomato, IPGRI, 1996). These varieties are: Haragel, Magdal Mawash, Daher Al-Jabal, Breh, Baskanta, Kafer Selwan, Deraa, Wardiat, Gerdi, and Bosfer.
The most important studied characteristics are the leaves shape and the fruits size and weight, showing that the fruits of the varieties: Haragel, Daher Al-Jabal, and Wardiat are the biggest while the fruits of Deraa variety are the smallest, and the fruits’ exterior color varies between pink, orange red and red. However, the yield varied between 6895 kg/Dunum for Wardiat, 6267 kg/Dunum for Magdal Mawash then 5816 kg/Dunum for Breh, and Daher Al-Jabal was the least which was 2206 kg / Dunum. the weight of the seeds varied between 2.18 g for Bosfer and 5.12 g for Breh. In addition, the number of days to flowering and maturity, the number of flowers and fruit per inflorescence and the number of inflorescence on the main stem was defined.
The chemical  structure of the fruits has been studied and it was found that the pH of the fruit varied between 4 for Kafer Selwan and 4.4 for Daher Al-Jabal and the total soluble solids varied between 7.3 % for Breh and 9.6 % for Deraa.
The acidity varied between 0.47% for  Daher Al-Jabal and 0.68 for Breh, and the total sugar varied between 3% for Wardiat and 5.7% for Haragel, and the vitamin c varied between 31.4 mg/100g of fruit juice for Kafer Selwan and 6.7 mg/100g of fruit juice for Daher Al-Jabal.
Laboratory evaluation for these varieties showed early blight resistance which is caused by fungus Alternaria solani. Disease severity was rated on 1-9 scale )Poysa and Tu, 1996).
The results showed that Bosfer, Daher Al-Jabal represent high level of resistance to early blight, and they have 5% of significance comparing with the varieties Deraa, Gerdi, Haragel and Magdal Mawash, which have moderate to high susceptibility, and no significant differences were found comparing with Wardiat, Breh, Baskanta and Kafer Selwan, which have moderate level of resistance.