Ecological and Biological Study of the Parasitoid Psyttalia (Opius) concolor Szpligeti (Hym: Braconidae) on olive orchards of Idleb and Lattakia

Yousef Abdullah
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research-
Idleb Research Center
Aleppo University, Faculty of Agriculture
2008

Abstract

Psyttalia concolor Szpli (Hym: Braconidae) is considered a larva-pupa parasitoids, on Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) the main pest on olive fruit in the world. This is due to the importance of Psyttalia concolor within the complex parasitoids of olive fruit fly, and coexistence of this parasitoid in Syria.
The aim of this research was ecological and biological study of the parasitoid Psyttalia (Opius) concolor Szpli (Hym: Braconidae) on olive orchards of Lattakia and Idleb. This study was carried out in 2006 & 2007.
Dynamic of olive fruit fly studied and the number of generation, olive fruit fly recorded five generation in Lattakia province (Ein Alwan, Baksa and Samea) and four generations in Aljanodea in Idleb in 2006&2007. However four generation in Ansas in Idleb in 2006 and three generations in this place in 2007 were recorded.
When exploration the parasitoids associated to B. oleae, we recorded seven parasitoids associated with olive fruit fly in all locations within 2006& 2007 belong to Hymenoptera & Diptera, six of them belong to order Hymenoptera, five belong to super family Calcidodea, and they are ectoparasites on the immature stage (larva-pupa) of olive fruit fly Eupelmus urozonus Dalm, Eurytoma martellii Dom, Pnigalio argaules Fer.&Del, Chlorocystus sp., Callocleonymus sp, and one parasitoid belongs to super family Ichneumonidea Psyttalia (Opius) concolor Szpl, this parasitoids is endoparasite (larva-pupa), and parasitoid belong to order Diptera, this is Prolasioptera berlesiana Paoli, this parasitoid feeding on eggs and larvae.
However, the activity of P. concolor on olive fruit fly B. oleae was evaluated.
The percentage of the parasitoid Psyttalia concolor adults recorded 3- 4 peaks in Lattakia (Ein Alwan, Baksa and Samea ) in 2006& 2007, which were associated with the 2nh, 3rd, 4th, 5th generation of B .oleae as recorded in these three locations in 2006 & 2007. However, in Idleb 1-3 peaks in (Aljanodea, Insas) associated with the 2nh, 3rd, 4th, generation of B .oleae as recorded in these two locations in 2006 & 2007.
Percent P. concolor to other parasitoids on B. oleae at the end of October in 2006 was: 19, 23, 18.5, 20.2 and 17.4% in Ein Alwan, Baksa, Samea, Aljanodea and Insas respectively.
However, in 2007 they were 21, 15, 11.5, 16.6, and 3.7% respectively in these places and in the same time.
When studying the diapauses of Psyttalia concolor, where  a large sample of 3rd larva of Bactrocera oleae collected from Lattakia province (Ein Alwan, Baksa and Samea) and Idleb province (Insas and Aljanodea) during the end of harvesting seasons  (November) 2006& 2007 to study the diapause of Psyttalia (Opius) concolor Szpl (Hym: Braconidae). All larvae of B. oleae were pupa in 4-7cm in soil, so we cant record real dormancy to pest add its parasitoid. Most adults of B. oleae & P. concolor emerged from soil under natural laboratory conditions in December & January during study seasons. The parasitoid was absent between middle March and end June, however, B. oleae was recorded on color traps in olive fields at the same time in Lattakia and Idleb during both study seasons.