The Effects of Foliar Application of Boron and Some Carbohydrates on Productivity and Quality of Pistachio Nuts

Wisam Samou’
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research-
al-Ghab Research Center
Aleppo University, Faculty of Agriculture
2009

Abstract

This research was carried out in Hama province, Morek area on 96 mature pistachio trees of cultivars Ashoury and Nab-al-Jamal selected in 2005 and 2007 growing seasons. It aims to study the effects of foliar application by the boron and carbohydrates at many intervals (post- harvest and before fall, the late period of bud breaking, the complete leave emerge, and the stage of the embryo rapid division) on the vegetative and reproductive growth traits.
The main results of this research are summarized as the follows:
1. Length and radial growth of new shoots and leaf area:
Theses traits were not affected significantly by treatments, although boron and carbohydrates have many effects on the components of these organs, buts there are no visible changes.
2. Fruits per cluster:
Boron increased the number of fruits per cluster in both of cultivars, and it has a good stimulation on pollination, and boosts pollens works and this is was at the second date of treatments (late period of bud breaking). Carbohydrates have effects like boron, but in another mechanism, so the best result of carbohydrates was at the last date of spraying (the stage of rapid embryo rapid division), here the growing fruits take up an amount of  nutrients dose helped them in their development.
3. Blanks Fruits:
Here we got similar results to the previous; boron decreased the blanks by improving the pollination, at the second date. Carbohydrates provided the growing fruits some nutrients, so helped them to resist the extreme humidity-stress.
4. Productivity:
The productivity of tress was improved, especially during the second date of application of boron, the last date of carbohydrates. Here the productivity of the tree are linked to many traits of clusters and fruits, witch were improved by the application.
5. Split Nuts:
The Ashoury cultivar was not affected by the applications, because this trait is superior in this cultivar. Another cultivar Nab-al-Jamal, was affected very well by the application, and had a higher percentage of split nuts. The best date of boron was the second one, and the last one of carbohydrates. Otherwise the mixture improved these traits at the last date.
6. Fruit, Nuts and Kernels Weight:
The research studied the wet and dry weight of the fruits, nuts and kernela, these weights were increased by the application, boron at the second date, carbohydrates at the last date, and the mixture at the last date.
7. Off-year Productivity:
The application of the mixture at the third date, made trees of Nab-al-Jamal bears in off-year. Also Ashoury trees could to bear in off-year when they had carbohydrates at the third date. This may because of the nutrition by carbohydrates in the on-year, but the results were in the off-year.