Evaluation and Characterization of Some Maize Genotypes

Maysoun Saleh 
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research-
GeneBank Department
Damascus University, Faculty of Agriculture
 2009

Abstract

Twenty maize Genotypes adapted to the local environments and two local varieties Ghouta1, Ghouta82 as controls were planted under the irrigated conditions, at Al Mre’aei station located at DerEzzor which belongs to the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Researches, in Complete Randomized Block Design on lines with three replications, in rate of 20 plants in each replication, each Genotype was planted in two following lines, Traits were recorded for ten randomized plants after excluding plants in the sides.
The aim of this research was to evaluate and characterize the local genotypes, and to determine the most important characteristics for plant breeding programs in addition to study correlation, regression and coefficient of variance between characteristics.
Results showed significant variations between the evaluated genotypes, where the genotype Panias was significantly superior in the earliness of male and female flowering and physiological maturity comparing to the local variety Ghouta82 rated of(6.99, 6.74, 7.20)% respectively, and also formed ear height which was significantly less than the local varieties Ghouta1, Ghouta82 in a reduction rated of(47.75, 60.39)% respectively, as well as plant height was significantly less than the local variety Ghouta1 in a reduction of 18.78% , where the varieties described of earliness of flowering and maturity are also described of low plant and ear height, The genotype Homs1 was also significantly superior in the earliness of physiological maturity comparing  to the local variety Ghouta82 rated of 4.40%. All genotypes were resistant to stem and root lodging as an initial result for pre breeding programs.
When evaluating yield components, it was noticed that some genotypes like Halab1, Al Raqqa1, Homs3, Al Ghab, Al Raqqa2, Dar’a, Dimashq, Idleb, Homs2 and Karahta showed all none significantly increasing in ear length comparing to Gouta82 rated of 6.25% – 12.5%, and also 13.33% – 20% comparing with Ghouta1, both Genotypes Idleb and Karahta showed none significantly increasing in number of kernels per row comparing to Ghouta1 rated of (16.68, 8.34)% respectively, While the genotypes Hama, Al Raqqa1, Idleb, Alhasakeh, Dar’a showed significant increasing in number of rows per ear comparing with Ghouta1 rated of 27.75% – 50%, as well as for the genotypes Idleb, Hama, Dar’a formed number of kernels per ear which were significantly more than Ghouta1 rated of (32.99 -63.36)%.
In concerning to kernels weigh per ear, the genotypes Al Ghab, Dar’a, Dimashq, Homs3, Halab1, Karahta and Hama showed all none significantly increase comparing to Ghouta1 rated of 12.07% – 35%, And also the genotype Homs3 showed none significantly increase in 1000_kernel weigh comparing to Ghouta1 rated of 22.91%, as well as for the genotype Al Ghab rated of 17.04% comparing to Ghouta82.
Results of analyzing the chemical components in the grains showed significant variances among the local genotypes and the local varieties in oil and protein content in grains, as the genotypes Jableh, Alhasakeh, Idleb, Al Raqqa1 were significantly higher in oil content comparing to Ghouta1 in an increase rated from 18.42% to 24.47%, also the genotypes Jableh, Alhasakeh were significantly higher in oil content comparing to Ghouta82 in an increase rated from 13.76% to 16.22%. All the genotypes except Al Qamishly were significantly higher in protein content in grains comparing to Ghouta1 rated of 29.75% – 75.69% while the genotypes Al Raqqa2, Karahta, Homs2, Homs3, Panias, Jableh, Katana, Tartous, Dar’a, Alhasakeh, Al Raqqa1, Idleb were significantly higher in protein content in grains comparing to Ghouta82 rated of 19.57% – 43.80%, but none of the genotypes was higher in the starch content in grains comparing to Ghouta1 and Ghouta82.
According to the study of the Regression relation for future prediction of one variable value according to the other variable value depending on the correlation which already exists between them, Results showed that the earliness of male flowering will cause earliness in the female flowering as well as the physiological maturity rated of (100, 81)% respectively, and will reduces number of kernels per ear and protein content in grain while increases the starch content in grains rated of 19% for each of them equally, as well as the earliness in female flowering will cause earliness in physiological maturity rated of 81%, and will reduce number of kernels per ear and protein content in grain but increases the starch content in grains rated of 20% for each of them equally, also the earliness in physiological maturity will reduces some of yield components such as ear length, number of kernels per ear and kernels weigh per ear rated of 17%, 24%, 21% respectively.
It was concluded that the increasing of plant height is accompany with increasing of ear height rated of 61% and delaying of physiological maturity rated of 20% and increasing of some yield components such as number of kernels per row and number of kernels per ear rated of 25% for each equally, and increasing the kernels weigh per ear rated of 27%, while the increase of ear height is accompany with increasing each of number of kernels per ear and kernels weigh per ear rated of (16, 17) % respectively, for yield components results showed that the increasing of ear length will increase the number of kernels per row and kernels weigh per ear rated of 24% -17% respectively, as well as increase  number of kernels per row will increase number and weigh of kernels per ear rated of 50% and 29% respectively, and the increase of number of rows per ear will increase number and weigh of kernels per ear rated of 61% and 32% respectively, and increasing of number of kernels per ear will increase the weigh of kernels per ear rated of 53% as they have positive correlation  in contrary to the general rule which refers to negative correlation between both of number and weigh of kernels per ear, on the other hand the increasing of kernels weigh per ear will cause an increasing of 1000_kernel weigh rated of 17%.
According to the results connected to chemical components we found that the increasing of protein content in grains is accompany with reduction of starch content in grains rated of 79%.