Galia Aabdel Majeed
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research-
Hassakeh Research Center
Aleppo University, Faculty of Agriculture
Many phonological observations (shoot and root dry weights, number of flowers, pods and seeds) and physiological observations (leaf water potential and nitrogen content of shoot) were taken.
The experiments were conducted at 3 steps:
– The first experiment was conducted at ICARDA in 2002-3003 to inoculums of Rhizobium strain immediately to genotypes: 6 chickpea (FLIP.98-74, FLIP.87-85, ILC 3279, ICVV2, FLIP.97-265, and FLIP.87-59) 6 lentil (L.590, L.2501, L.7210, L.7553, L.7678 and L7214) and 6 vetch (V.2561, V.2520, V.2555, V.2003, V.2604 and V.2560) were grown in pot irrigated with 4 salinity levels (mixture of NaCl and Cl2Ca 2 ratio 3/1).
– The second experiment was carried out in different ecological regions located at Khabour basin and the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes according to greenhouse result during 2003/2004 and 2004/2005.
The selected farms used saline water between 0.5-6 dS/m by using two most promising genotypes for each plant (ILC 3279 and FLIP.87-59) for chickpea, (L.7678 and L.2501) for lentil and (V.2555 and V.2560) for vetch .
The genotypes were grown in randomized blocks with 3 replicates.
The results showed a significant reduction in seedling growth for all legumes genotypes and a significant interaction among salt treatments and seed within plant species for dry shoot and root weight, indicating that the plant genotype responded differently to salt treatments.
Increasing salinity resulted in a higher root/stem ratio, which was most pronounced in ICCV2 chickpea genotype. Shoot and root dry weights in all legumes plants tested decreased as NaCl concentration increased in the rooting media.
Salinity level up to 2 dS/m did not have any effect on seed and biological yields of chickpea, lentil and vetch. Water potential was also unaffected by this level of salinity. When the salinity level was raised to 4 dS/m and 6 dS/m a significant decrease in all these parameters but it was clearer in lentil than chickpea and vetch.
We found that chickpea is more tolerant to salinity than lentil and vetch because it can be tolerant until 4 dS/m. However the vetch can be tolerate between 3-4 dS/m but the lentil was less tolerate than the anthers it can be tolerate just 2 dS/m. The salt tolerances of the lines can be explained by the relation to water measured we concluded that ICCV2 (chickpea), V. 2604 (Vetch) were “osmoregulating” salt tolerance mechanism.
All genotypes studied in field experiment had better performance. Moreover, significant differences appeared in other sites with salt concentrations more than 6 dS/m. These differences could be attributed to the treatment in addition to the differences in site conditions, soil properties, and the quality of irrigation water, especially at higher salt level of 6 dS/m.
The field experiment showed that the FLIP 87-59 genotype had a better response on salinity stress than ILC 3279 genotype. L.7678 lentil genotype was the best one and V.2560 vetch genotype was the most important genotype at all experiments and at all different media.
We found that the total water consumption for chickpea was 3963 m³/ha, and the mean yield was 1293 kg/ha. The water use efficiency was between 0.31 – 0.35 kg/m³.
The total water consumption for lentil was 3656 m³/ha, and the mean yield was 1404 kg/ha. The water use efficiency (WUE) was 0.37-0.40 kg/m³. The total water consumption for vetch was 3634 m³/h and the mean yield was 1183 kg/ha. The efficiency of water use was 0.32-0.33 kg/m³.
The estimated values (KC) for chickpea, lentil and vetch were 0.53-0.71, 0.50-0.70, and 0.53-0.71, respectively similarly for two years. The highest values of flowering and maturity for the above species were found in March and April in the 2 years of study.
When we study salt movement we found an accumulation of salts with high concentration except at Tal-Brak and irrigation station sites during the 2 stages of flowering and maturity.