Hussam Michael Baroudi
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research ،Administration of Horticulture.
Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University.
This research was conducted during the period of 2014 – 2015 in six locations in Tartus Governate in order to survey and evaluate some mulberry types belong to (Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L.).
45 types (22 of white mulberry and 11 of black mulberry 12 of fruitless) were determined for the purpose of morphological and Phenological characterization and for the determination of the degree of morphological relationship between those types in addition to setting their own taxonomic keys.
Morphological analysis was done based on 14 morphology characteristics (leaves, catkins, fruits) in addition to a cluster analysis for all types belongs to white and black species and for each species alone. The morphological tree for all types showed two main groups with a contrast ratio of (48%), the first group included three types belong to black mulberry, and the second group included 30 types belong to both species with a contrast ratio of (0-38%), while the morphological tree for the black species types showed a contrast ratio of (47%) and (33%) for the white specie types.
The degree of morphological similarity was varied between the studied types regardless of fruits color, and the percentage of contrast among the black mulberry types is higher than white mulberry types.
In this study, some chemical properties (Glucose, Fructose, Sucrose, titratable acidity, vitamin C, total solid contents) of 33 phenotypes of white (Morus alba L.) and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberries phenotypes fruits grown in Tartus of Syria were investigated.
The glucose content of mulberry phenotypes varied between 14.69 % (KH-9, black) and 0.72% (B-7, white). The fructose content varied between 11.01 % (KH-9, black) and 0.05 % (KH-5, white). The sucrose content varied between 0.03% (DN-4, black) and 2.37% (KH-1, black). Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from 2 mg/100 g fresh weight (B-11, KH-5, D-7, M-7) to 42 mg/100 g fresh weight (A-2, black). Total acidity varied between 0.06 % (D-6, white) to 2.21 % (KH-3, black). The total solid contents % were in the range from 19.45 % (KH-9, black) to 5.6 % (M-2, white).
The results of this study revealed that there were big differences in juice fruits contains (sugars, TSS, Vitamin C and TA) regardless of the species and the location. The study showed the highest fructose, glucose and sucrose concentrations were observed in some black types 25.7 % (KH-9) followed by white mulberry type 16.22 % (M-7). Some white mulberry types had the highest concentration of sucrose was 1.47% (DA-4). Black mulberry types were also found to be higher than of the white ones in ascorbic acid and total acidity contents.
Propagation of mulberry through cuttings is still one of the most cost-effective methods for clonal regeneration. This study was conducted in order to determine the influence of Indol-3-butyric acid (IBA) doses on hardwood and softwood top cuttings of three types of M. alba L. (B-1, B-5, KH-8) and three types of M. nigra L. (M-4, KH-9, KH-1) and one fruitless type (B-3) which spread in different locations in Tartus, Syria.
Hardwood cuttings were prepared during February from one-year-old shoots and the softwood top cuttings were prepared during August in 2015.
The cuttings were treated with different doses of IBA (1000, 2000, 4000 ppm) in addition to the control application 0 ppm. The cuttings were planted in the glasshouses in order to root. The statistical results indicated that the softwood cuttings had the highest average of the rooting percentage, the number of roots, and the length of the roots comparing to the hardwood cuttings.
The hardwood cuttings of the phenotype (KH-9) had a high significant difference comparing with the other phenotypes with average of rooting percentage 60%, length of the roots 4.65 cm, and the number of the roots 2.6 unit/ cutting. The concentration 4000 ppm of IBA was superior at rooting percentage, roots number, and length of the roots over the other concentrations, While the softwood cuttings (M-4) phenotype was superior over the other phenotypes with average of length of the roots 9.14 cm, and the number of the roots 6.73 unit/ cutting. (KH-9, KH-8) phenotypes had the highest rooting percentage 53.33%, While the best treatment was found in 2000 ppm concentration of IBA comparing to other concentrations.
Keywords: Morus alba, Morus nigra, Morphological characterization, cluster analysis, taxonomic keys, ascorbic acid, sugars, TSS, TA, Propagation, IBA.