Characterizations and Evaluation of Some Wild Species of Chickpea (Cicer spp.) and their Importance in Genetic Improvement Programs

Ghada Khalel Ahmad
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research ،GeneBank Department
Faculty of Agriculture,Damascus University,
2015

Abstract

This research  was conducted to characterize and evaluate of some Wild Cicer species to use it in genetic improvement programs, so eight annual wild species of chickpea  was evaluated under rainfed conditions, from each Wild species were used tow  genotypes and Cicer arietinum was used as a check  and these species are : C.pinnatifidum ,C. echinospermum , C. bijugum, C.yamashitae , C.reticulatum, C. judaicum, C.chorassanicum, C.cuneatum, this experiment was planted in Izrah research station which belongs to General Commotion for Agriculture Scientific Research in Complete Randomized Blook Design  (RCBD) planted in growth season  2011-2012, and phonological , morphological, and productive traits was studied, during experiment three wild species didn’t germinate which are: C.cuneatum, C.chrorassanicum, C.yamashitea, perhaps due to thickness of covering seed in this genotypes,  resulted showed check was superior in most studied traits in comparison to wild genotypes, so chick generated earlier (21.3 day) than other genotypes, C.judaicum  was late (50day), for flowering date tow genotypes of C.reticulatum1,2 were early in flowering (55.3day) but without any significant variations in comparison to check (62.3day), we can use these tow  genotypes in genetic improvement programs to get earlier  cultivars in flowering , for days to pods formation C. reticulatum1 was early without any significant variances in comparison to check (70.7day), while the check maturated early (93.3day) and showed significant variances with rest genotypes exception C.reticulatum, so we can use this genotype in genetic improvement programs to get early  verities in maturity which is important adaption traits  in arid and semi-arid areas to avoid  terminal drought and high temperature at end growth season, for plant height C.pinnatifidum2 had higher plant height (38cm)than other genotyps without significant variances with check, while C.judaicum2 had less plant height(13.3cm) because of prostrate growth habit with significant variances with rest of genotypic in plant width (36.7cm), for first pod height check (17.3cm) recorded only significant variances with C.judaicum1,2,  for number stems check showed significant variances with wild  genotypes C.pinnatifidum, C.echinospermum, C.judaicum. check was superior in most productive traits and showed significant variances in comparison to wild genotypes     exception C.reticulatum check had(49.3) number of peduncle per plant and C.reticulatum (37pod) in number pods per plant. C.judaicum1 had less number pods  (2pod),  and also check was superior in number seeds per plant (37seed) without any significant variance with C.echinospermum (24seed), C.reticulatum1,2 (29.3, 30),and check was superior in grain yield plant (19.3 g) and also in weigh 100 seed (37.3g) , while C.judaicum  had lower value with significant rise 94.5% comparison with check.

While the correlation study was significant negative 5% between days to flowering with weigh 100 seed (r=-0.40) and grain yield(r=-0.42)and significant positive1% between days to maturity and plant height(r=-0.71), and number of peduncle per plant(r=-0.62), and number pods per plant(r=-0.54), and weigh 100 seed (r=-0.58)and grain yield(r=-0.56), the main reason to this negative relationships is late in germination consequently late in maturity that expose plants to unsuitable conditions that effect in most productive traits. The relationship was significant positive 1% between number of peduncle per plant with number pods per plant (r=0.93), and number seeds per plant(r=0.90), and  weigh 100 seed (r=-0.66), grain yield per plant(r=0.67), The relationship was significant positive 1% between number pods per plant with number seeds per plant(r=0.95), and weigh 100 seed(r=0.57), grain yield plant (r=0.65), significant positive 1% between number seeds per plant with weigh 100 seed(r=0.69), and (r=0.79) with grain yield plant, significant positive 1% between weigh 100 seed and grain yield plant(r=0.94).

According to the study of the regression relations for future predication of one variable value according to the other variable value depending on the correlation which already exists between them, While regression was studied only significant relations which use to determine the percentage independent factor (x) with dependent factor (y), we reach that genetic improvement programs to reach early germination led to early flowering (66%) and early pods formation(53%) and early maturity (62%), genetic improvement programs which doing in increasing number of peduncles per plant led to increasing number pods per plant (88%)and (79%) number seeds per plant, and increasing number seeds per plant led to increase grain yield plant (62%).