Eman Majed Belto
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research- Department of Food Technology,
Faculty of Agriculture,Damascus University,
This study aimed to detect aflatoxins in wheat and corn (maize ) stored in different regions of the country. This is made by:
- Detaction of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in wheat through storage conditions.
- Detection of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in maize through storage conditions.
- The effect of storage conditions on aflatoxin production.
Tests are conducted on /150/ samples of wheat, produced on 2003-2004-2005 stored in cells, indoor and outdoor at Kameshli, Raqqa, Idleb, Tartous, Aleppo, Homs, Damascus and Hama using thin layer chromatography (TLC) significant to estimate aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2. Also, 24 samples of corn stored indoor at Kameshli, Raqqa, Idleb, Tartous, Aleppo, Homs, Damascus and Hama, were taken after one month of storage. Storage process was executed in labs of Food Technology Department in order to follow-up the development of aflatoxin after three months and seven months of storage. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 were detected in the samples by using HPLC.
Results showed that wheat samples are free of aflatoxin B2, G1, G2. The contamination with aflatoxin was restricted with aflatoxin B1, may be considered a field infection where it was noticed that the great infection was on wheat stored outdoor then cells with inexistence of significant differentiation among wheat produced at the three years. All the available rates are considered less than the limits allowable locally which are (ppb20) according to Syrian Standards, also, less than allowed by EEC and Codex.
The results of corn analysis showed contamination with four kinds of aflatoxin all over the country with rates exceeded the limits allowable locally, EEC and Codex . Contamination rates improved with the increasing of storage period. The differentiations, in most cases, are significant which appear the effect storage period on the increment of aflatoxin in maize. aflatoxin G accompanied with aflatoxin B showed that the infection was stores one resulted by Asperigillus parasiticus.