Effect of Agriculture Distance and Sowing Date on Yield and Quality Traitsin Some Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Varieties under AL Raqqa Conditions

Muhammad Al Bagdadi, GCSAR, Animal wealth Research Administration.
Damascus University, Faculty of Agriculture.


Fodder beet remarks by its high root yield, high nutrition, and palatable as compared with the other forage crops, because it concludes high water and sugar, so this characterization contributes to get high milk production. The farmers cut the roots and mix it with hay before give it to the cattle. Many studies confirm that milk corruption is reduced because of Butyric Acid Bacteria, when the cow meal included fodder beet as compared with the cow meal that included hay alone.

The available information about fodder beet is very tiny, and this crop is not studied in the Syrian conditions, in addition of it is importance as a forage crop, because it is considered as a source of energy, besides of it is ability to be grown in the salty and marginal areas.

Many studies exhibited that the differences in root yield is referred to: environmental conditions, soil structure, light period, varieties and different agricultural treatments. For example: The optimum plant density leads to perfect usage of light and water, that’s decrease the photosynthesis that contributes in the increment in the accumulation of dry matter in roots, that’s lead to high root yield.

Because of the absence of previous studies about the proper agricultural treatments of fodder beet in Syria. It was very fundamental to conduct this study to get the optimum treatments to get the best root yield and best quality of this crop. The most important treatments were: sowing dates, plant densities, and varieties.

The importance of agricultural treatments on yield and quality traits of fodder beet motivated us to carry out an agricultural experiment in at the General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Al Raqqa Res. Station during 2011/2012 season, in tow sowing dates, autumn and winter time. Fourmonogerm fodder beet were sown. Three plant densities were implicated (66.66, 80, 83 thousand plants per hac). A split splitplot design was used, with three replicates. The main factor was sowing date, agricultural distance were in the sub plots, while the varieties were in the sub sub plots. The results clarified the following:

  • The superiority of sowing on a distance 60 cm between rows and 20 cm within row (80 000 plan per hac), to get better morphological characters of fodder beet (root length, diameter and weight, and root shoot ratio), that reflected positively on root and shoot yields. The mentioned distances preserved the plant standability 56 700 and 54 960 plant per hac for autumn and winter time respectively. The decrement in plant standability were 5 and 8.4 % for autumn and winter time as compared with the required density.
  • The fodder beet variety Vermonwas recommended to be sown, because of its superiority in yield and quality traits as compared with the other varieties.
  • We recommend growing fodder beet in both autumn and winter time under Al Raqqa conditions.