Study Of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)Varieties After  Harvesting in Summer Time in Comparison with Autumn Time in Der El-Zor.

Ahmad Al Abdallah
GCSAR, Agricultural Research Center on Der Al Zor, Sugar Beet Directorate.
Al Furat University, Faculty of Agriculture.
2011

Abstract:

Growing sugar beet in the proper sowing date and organizing harvesting are considered basic matters. Harvesting under dry and hot conditions affect the dry tolerance of the beet roots. Lifting beet roots in piles in the field waiting for transportation and manufacturing , the roots will be rotted in few days. So the factories cannot accept those beet root in this bad conditions. Because of that harvesting and delivering beet crop should be done in a short time.

In Syria harvesting time expanded 100 days, which begins from the 1st of July till the end of September,  for both Winter and Autumn time sowing, it is considered a short time generally if we take in consideration the total growing area from onside, and low capacity  of the factories from the other side. In both cases the farmers have  to leave the lifted roots in piles in field under the sunshine, or in the transporters near the factories waiting for many days. Because of that the beet roots are exposed to different environment conditions as, high temperatures which sometimes more be than 35° , humidity that affected the quality of the beet  root negatively. Determining the proper conditions for sowing, harvesting and storage is a serious matter to reduce the deterioration in beet root after harvest.

Because of  the economic effect importance of this issue on sugar beet production, this study was conducted in the General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research (GCSAR) – Der El Zor Agricultural Research Center, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons to study the effect of sowing and harvesting time, and storage period on yield and quality traits tow sugar beet varieties. The growing was in Autumn and Summer time, tow sugar beet varieties were used, on was monogerm (Dita), the other was multigerm (Acala), which are recommended to be grown in Der Al Zor. Harvesting was implicated three dates i.e. 195, 210, and 225 days after planting in Summer time and dates of harvesting for Autumn time  i.e. 225, 240 and 255 days after planting. Storage period was for 10 days after harvesting, and three methods for storage were used: 1)  Open piles, 2) covered piles, and 3) piles in shadow. Split split plot design was used with three replicates. The results exhibited that harvesting after 240 days in Autumn time gave the highest sucrose and brix percentages, and root and sugar yields, while harvesting after 225 days increase purity % and top yield (ton/he). In Summer time harvesting after 225 days increase sucrose % and root and sugar yields, while harvesting after 195 days achieved the highest top yield. In general the monogerm variety Dita surpassed the multigerm variety (Acala) in all quality and yield traits except top yield, the multigerm one was better than the monogerm.

Covered piles of beet root after harvesting