Category Archives: Uncategorized

meeting of GSP National Team on 3 July 2018

Under the patronage of Dr. Magda Mohammed Mofleh, Director General of GCSAR, the first meeting of GSP National Team was held on 3 July 2018, in the presence of Dr. Bahaa Al-rahban, Deputy of Director General. Dr. Manhal Alzoubi presented the importance of establishing a national team to work with The Global soil Partnership GSP, the Five Pillars of GSP, Syria chaired the second pillar, the NENA work Plan, the Global Soil Laboratory Network GLOSOLAN, the International Network of Soil Information Institutions INSII, International Network of Black Soils INBS, soil doctors programme and the celebration of the World Soil Day.
After the presentation, the national team headquarters and the GIS laboratory were opened in Al-Hijaz and the work of the five pillars was distributed to the national team, furthermore the team was nominated for the international networks

workshop entitled “Olive Mill Wastewater OMWW as source of clean energy”.

Under the patronage of Minister of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform Ahmed Fatih Al-Qadri and the presence of the deputy Minister Dr. Luay Aslan, the Director General of the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) Dr. Majida Mufleh, the Dupery Director General Dr. Bahaa Alrahban and the head of the Department of Soil Science at the Faculty of Agriculture – University of Damascus a workshop was held on 28 February 2018 at the headquarters of the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform entitled Olive Mill Wastewater OMWW as source of clean energy.
Dr. Ghonwa Khaddour presented the results of her experiment on fermenting the OMWW in an anaerobic way within the biogas digester. The importance of this work was described as: fermentation OMWW that contains phenols by Methane bacteria into biogas and organic fertilizers is safely mean to get clean energy and organic fertilizers, thus it is safe way to solve the problem of OMWW which is produced annually in large quantities and causing pollution of water bodies and the environment.
It is the first time in Syria, GCSAR through a research experiment, recycles olive mill wastewater (OMWW) into a bio-gas and organic fertilizers.

sustainable development of natural resources project

Within the activities of sustainable development of natural resources project, which is implementing in Salamieh in cooperation with the Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry lands (ACADAS), the project has been started through a number of works on 12/11/2017:
• A topographic survey of water harvesting site in order to implement the water harvesting activity during the coming period.
• Field capacity analysis at the project site.
• Soil sampling from the sites of conservation agriculture and water harvesting.
• Determining the sites of project for the next year

Training course: “Statistical Analysis and the Software  used to Analyze Field Experiments Results”

Place: Crops Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

Period: 8-12/5/2016


Lecturer Activity Day
Dr. Thamer Al Huneish

Dr. Ghassan Al Lahham

Opening Sunday


Dr. Entessar AL Jbawi Principles in statistical Analysis
Dr. Entessar AL Jbawi Table of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Open discussion
Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum Data input to Genstat Monday


Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum RCBD design
Factorial analysis
Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum Exercises Tuesday


Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum Exercises
Open discussion
Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum Interpreting the analysis of variance table Wednesday


Dr. Razan Al Najjar Correlation and regression analysis using SPSS
Open discussion
Dr. Ghassan Al Lahham Analysis of variance using M-Stat C Thursday



Dr. Saud Shehab

Dr. Thamer Al Huneish

Dr. Thamer Al Huneish

Dr. Ghassan Al Lahham


Seminar Entitled “First Results of Summer Time Sowing of Sugar Beet in the Middle Area, Hama”

This seminar was held at Hama Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR, on 5/5/2016.


  • This seminar presented the results of sowing sugar beet in new dates of sowing (1/8, 15/8, and 1/9), and harvested after (195, 210, and 225 days) after sowing.
  • The results showed the possibility of sowing beet started from 1/8 up to 1/9, with no significant loss in sugar content, but the delay in harvest date leads to a significant increment in root yield.
  • The seminar also focused on the advantages and disadvantages of the new sowing date.

A General View on Agriculture in Syria

the total area of Syria is estimated at 18.5 million hectares. Agro-ecologically, Syria is divided into 5 zones:

1. 1st agro-ecological zone
It occupies an area of 2.7 million hectares and constitutes 14.6% of total country area. It has a rainfall rate exceeding 350 mm/year. Its major crops are wheat, legumes, summer crops, vegetables and fruit trees the most important of which are citrus apples and almonds.
2. 2nd agro-ecological zone
It occupies an area of 2.5 million hectares and constitutes 13.3% of total country area. The rainfall rate varies between 250 – 350 mm/year. The major crops are wheat, barley, legumes, and fruit trees the most important of which are grapes, olives and almonds.
3. 3rd agro-ecological zone
It occupies an area of 1.3 million hectares and constitutes 7.1% of total country area. The rainfall rate is 250 mm/year. Its major crop is barley, and it is sometimes cultivated with legumes.
4. 4th agro-ecological zone
It occupies an area of 1.8 million hectares and constitutes 9.9% of total country area. The rainfall rate varies between 200 – 250 mm/year. The major crop is barley.
5. Steppe (Badia)
It occupies an area of 10.2 million hectares and constitutes 55.1% of total country area. Its annual rainfall is instable and varies between 100 – 150 mm/year. It is used as rangelands for sheep.

Area and production of strategic crops

Crop Area(ha) Production (ton) Kg/ha
Irrigated wheat 698073 2186788 3133
Non-irrigated wheat 676004 995323 1472
Irrigated Barley 48935 94939 1940
Non-irrigated Barley 1213943 815981 672
Lentil 116575 129370 1110
Chickpea 76130 53022 696
Broad bean 14933 30990 2075
Maize 29927 109145 3647
Cotton 62339 169094 2713
tobacco 11117 15817 1423
Sugar beet 6396 316855 49540
Tomato 7925 273009 34448
Potato 22439 441718 19685
Olives 697442 842098
Grapes 46821 306736
Figs 9483 46443
Apricots 13780 65272
Apples 53180 256614
Almonds 71563 83229
Cherries 29536 62373
Pistachio 59903 54516
Citrus 43719 1250725
Palm 368 4039

* Source: Annual agricultural statistical abstract of the year 2013

Total arable lands are estimated at 6 million hectares, of which 5.7 million hectares are exploited. Irrigated area occupies 1.40 million hectares, rainfed area 3.34 million hectares, fallow area 0.84 million hectares, and forestry area 572 thousand hectare.
Based upon MAAR’s statistics of the year 2007, the population of Syria was about 22 million. 8.9 million of them live in rural areas. Almost 0.95 million out of 4.9 million people i.e. 19.4% of Syrian workforce work in agriculture. Annual population growth rate is estimated at 2.4%.

The climate of the Mediterranean prevails in Syria. This climate is characterized by a relatively short rainy and cold winter (December – March), a dry and hot summer (June- August). In general crops are susceptible for several seasons to severe ecological stresses, such as frost, during initial growth stages, or to rainfall retention and high temperatures during the maturity stage. Crops are also exposed to irregular rainfalls, in terms of amount or distribution throughout growth season.

The steppe is also subject to critical water stresses. As a principal pasturing area for sheep, it is exposed to a noticeable deterioration of vegetation due to the lack of rainfall and uneven distribution of it and to overgrazing.
Water deficiency is one of the most important problems facing Syrian agriculture today, therefore the specialists do their best to develop drought-tolerant varieties of cereals and legumes as well as develop irrigation techniques for water use rationalization in agriculture.

In spite of the disadvantages of relatively dry and hot summers and cold in winters in this area, the agricultural advantages of this climate are represented by the potentiality of producing high-quality farm crops. It is well known that the Syrian durum wheat has a high crystallization level and good protein content, and that the Syrian fruits are attractive in color and delicious in taste.
The meat of Awassi sheep is exceptional in terms of quality and palatability. Based upon the above data, GCSAR is developing its research programmes in line with the nature of Syrian Agriculture and its development priorities.