All posts by enusar

a visit to Ain Al-Nesr Barshin site

As part of the activities of the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) in the soil conserving, reclamation and cultivation of Ain Al-Nesr Barshin site, the Director General of GCSAR, Dr. Magda Mofleh, Deputies Director General and the Director of Natural Resources Research Administration had a field visit to the site where they were fallowing up the implemented works by water harvesting and soil conservation technical group:
• Hydrological and environmental field survey by recording 459 erosion measurement points.
• Recording local Cartesian coordinates for 525 erosion measurement points.
• Implementing soil surveys, environmental surveys and soil taxonomy.
• Soil conservation for the Ein el-Nesr-Barshin site was implemented, including the construction of countertops stone and soil dyke, and removal the weeds and stones as well as the topographic survey.


sustainable development of natural resources project

Within the activities of sustainable development of natural resources project, which is implementing in Salamieh in cooperation with the Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry lands (ACADAS), the project has been started through a number of works on 12/11/2017:
• A topographic survey of water harvesting site in order to implement the water harvesting activity during the coming period.
• Field capacity analysis at the project site.
• Soil sampling from the sites of conservation agriculture and water harvesting.
• Determining the sites of project for the next year

a training course in field of soil taxonomy

Within the activities of the General commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, the Administration of Natural Resources Research ANRR, in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, organized a training course in field of soil taxonomy – the third stage for technicians according to the American classification system at Lattakia Research Center on 5/11/2017.

coordination meeting for the project (Implementing the conservation agriculture CA to improve the productivity of grain crops (wheat and barley) and soil properties in Arab countries

Concerning to the project (Implementing the conservation agriculture CA to improve the productivity of grain crops (wheat and barley) and soil properties in Arab countries) which the Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (ACSAD) will implement it in five Arab countries: Syria, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Lebanon, The first coordination meeting was held between the national team represented by the Director of Crop Research Administration, the Director of the Natural Resources Research Administration, the national coordinator of the project and the members of the team, and in presence of head of conservation agriculture program at ACSAD Dr. Hussein Mahasneh.
The meeting included a review of the results of the national coordinator Dr. Ola Mustafa visit to the proposed sites for the project in the Salamieh, Al-Ghab region and Lattakia, discussing the action plan for the current season and supplying the equipment and materials.
The CA project aim to:
• Improving the sustainability of agricultural production systems in the Arab region by increasing the productivity of grain crops, in addition to preserving the agricultural resources.
• Improving farmers income and level of living by reducing agricultural production costs.
• Reducing the catastrophic effects of climate change.
• Strengthening capacity-building in field of CA.
• Activate the role of agricultural extension, and facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology to the largest number of technician, extensionsts and farmers.


coordination meeting for sustainable development of natural resources project

Concerning to the sustainable development of natural resources project between the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR and the Arab Center for Arid Zones and Dry Lands, the second coordination meeting between the two teams held on 30/10/2017 at the headquarters of the ACSAD in Saboura – Damascus.
The meeting included a presentation on the field work conducted by the two teams in Salamieh after determine the sites of project. After discussion, it was agreed that:

Implementing project activities in at least two sites.
Identification specialized teams for the implementation of water harvesting and conservation agriculture activities.
Implementing of the following activities during the current year:
Rainwater harvesting
Conservation agriculture
Preparation of a map of changes in vegetation cover of Salamieh area

Training course: “Statistical Analysis and the Software  used to Analyze Field Experiments Results”

Place: Crops Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

Period: 8-12/5/2016


Lecturer Activity Day
Dr. Thamer Al Huneish

Dr. Ghassan Al Lahham

Opening Sunday


Dr. Entessar AL Jbawi Principles in statistical Analysis
Dr. Entessar AL Jbawi Table of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Open discussion
Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum Data input to Genstat Monday


Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum RCBD design
Factorial analysis
Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum Exercises Tuesday


Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum Exercises
Open discussion
Eng. Ahmad Ghannoum Interpreting the analysis of variance table Wednesday


Dr. Razan Al Najjar Correlation and regression analysis using SPSS
Open discussion
Dr. Ghassan Al Lahham Analysis of variance using M-Stat C Thursday



Dr. Saud Shehab

Dr. Thamer Al Huneish

Dr. Thamer Al Huneish

Dr. Ghassan Al Lahham


Seminar Entitled “First Results of Summer Time Sowing of Sugar Beet in the Middle Area, Hama”

This seminar was held at Hama Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR, on 5/5/2016.


  • This seminar presented the results of sowing sugar beet in new dates of sowing (1/8, 15/8, and 1/9), and harvested after (195, 210, and 225 days) after sowing.
  • The results showed the possibility of sowing beet started from 1/8 up to 1/9, with no significant loss in sugar content, but the delay in harvest date leads to a significant increment in root yield.
  • The seminar also focused on the advantages and disadvantages of the new sowing date.

A General View on Agriculture in Syria

the total area of Syria is estimated at 18.5 million hectares. Agro-ecologically, Syria is divided into 5 zones:

1. 1st agro-ecological zone
It occupies an area of 2.7 million hectares and constitutes 14.6% of total country area. It has a rainfall rate exceeding 350 mm/year. Its major crops are wheat, legumes, summer crops, vegetables and fruit trees the most important of which are citrus apples and almonds.
2. 2nd agro-ecological zone
It occupies an area of 2.5 million hectares and constitutes 13.3% of total country area. The rainfall rate varies between 250 – 350 mm/year. The major crops are wheat, barley, legumes, and fruit trees the most important of which are grapes, olives and almonds.
3. 3rd agro-ecological zone
It occupies an area of 1.3 million hectares and constitutes 7.1% of total country area. The rainfall rate is 250 mm/year. Its major crop is barley, and it is sometimes cultivated with legumes.
4. 4th agro-ecological zone
It occupies an area of 1.8 million hectares and constitutes 9.9% of total country area. The rainfall rate varies between 200 – 250 mm/year. The major crop is barley.
5. Steppe (Badia)
It occupies an area of 10.2 million hectares and constitutes 55.1% of total country area. Its annual rainfall is instable and varies between 100 – 150 mm/year. It is used as rangelands for sheep.

Area and production of strategic crops

Crop Area(ha) Production (ton) Kg/ha
Irrigated wheat 698073 2186788 3133
Non-irrigated wheat 676004 995323 1472
Irrigated Barley 48935 94939 1940
Non-irrigated Barley 1213943 815981 672
Lentil 116575 129370 1110
Chickpea 76130 53022 696
Broad bean 14933 30990 2075
Maize 29927 109145 3647
Cotton 62339 169094 2713
tobacco 11117 15817 1423
Sugar beet 6396 316855 49540
Tomato 7925 273009 34448
Potato 22439 441718 19685
Olives 697442 842098
Grapes 46821 306736
Figs 9483 46443
Apricots 13780 65272
Apples 53180 256614
Almonds 71563 83229
Cherries 29536 62373
Pistachio 59903 54516
Citrus 43719 1250725
Palm 368 4039

* Source: Annual agricultural statistical abstract of the year 2013

Total arable lands are estimated at 6 million hectares, of which 5.7 million hectares are exploited. Irrigated area occupies 1.40 million hectares, rainfed area 3.34 million hectares, fallow area 0.84 million hectares, and forestry area 572 thousand hectare.
Based upon MAAR’s statistics of the year 2007, the population of Syria was about 22 million. 8.9 million of them live in rural areas. Almost 0.95 million out of 4.9 million people i.e. 19.4% of Syrian workforce work in agriculture. Annual population growth rate is estimated at 2.4%.

The climate of the Mediterranean prevails in Syria. This climate is characterized by a relatively short rainy and cold winter (December – March), a dry and hot summer (June- August). In general crops are susceptible for several seasons to severe ecological stresses, such as frost, during initial growth stages, or to rainfall retention and high temperatures during the maturity stage. Crops are also exposed to irregular rainfalls, in terms of amount or distribution throughout growth season.

The steppe is also subject to critical water stresses. As a principal pasturing area for sheep, it is exposed to a noticeable deterioration of vegetation due to the lack of rainfall and uneven distribution of it and to overgrazing.
Water deficiency is one of the most important problems facing Syrian agriculture today, therefore the specialists do their best to develop drought-tolerant varieties of cereals and legumes as well as develop irrigation techniques for water use rationalization in agriculture.

In spite of the disadvantages of relatively dry and hot summers and cold in winters in this area, the agricultural advantages of this climate are represented by the potentiality of producing high-quality farm crops. It is well known that the Syrian durum wheat has a high crystallization level and good protein content, and that the Syrian fruits are attractive in color and delicious in taste.
The meat of Awassi sheep is exceptional in terms of quality and palatability. Based upon the above data, GCSAR is developing its research programmes in line with the nature of Syrian Agriculture and its development priorities.