General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research
Administration of Horticulture.
Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University
This study was carried out to determine the efficiency of different substrates (sawdust and wheat straw) supplemented with some supplements (wheat bran, wheat seeds and soya bean seeds) at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 %) on phonology, morphology, productivity and quality of king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii. The results showed that the shortest period which Pleurotus eryngii needed to complete its production cycle was on wheat straw substrate supplemented with 30 % all supplements at the concentration of, and the shortest period needed to complete the growth of mycelia was on sawdust substrate supplemented with soya beans at the concentration of 20 % (16 Day), and the shortest period to complete the maturity of mycelia was on sawdust substrate supplemented with wheat straw at the concentration of 30 % (13 Days), the shortest time to start fruiting was on the substrate of 100 % of sawdust (7.50 Days), and the shortest period to first flush was on wheat straw substrate supplemented with wheat bran at the concentration of 30 % (5.50 Days). The high numbers of fruit bodies were on wheat straw substrate supplemented with soya beans at the concentration of 20 % (7.80 bodies), while the highest fruit body weight was on wheat straw substrate supplemented with soya beans at the concentration of 30 % (114.09 g), the highest length of fruit body stem was recorded on wheat straw substrate supplemented with soya beans at the concentration of 30 % (61.96 mm) with a diameter of 30.19 mm, and the highest thickness of cap was for fruit bodies resting from sawdust substrate supplemented with soya beans at the concentration of 20 % (10.63 mm), while cap diameter was the highest on wheat straw substrate supplemented with soya beans at the concentration of 30 %. And the highest numbers of flushes was on sawdust substrate supplemented with wheat beans at the concentration of 30 % (3.29 flush), the highest production was on wheat straw substrate supplemented with soya beans at the concentration of 20 % (286.69 g/kg) and bioefficiency of 122.21 %.
The results shown the variation in the quality characters of king oyster mushroom depending on the growth substrate, the sawdust substrate supplemented with wheat beans at the concentration of 30 % was superior in dry material percentage (22.38 %), the highest protein percentage in fruiting bodies (26.75%) was on sawdust substrate supplemented with soya beans at the concentration of 10 %, the fat amount in fruiting bodies didn’t effect by substrate type, and there wasn’t any significant difference between sawdust and wheat straw substrate, for the carbohydrates percentage, the fruiting bodies resetting from sawdust substrate supplemented with wheat brain at the concentration of 20 % were excelled (67.21 %), while wheat straw substrate recorded the highest percentage of ach (10.46 %), also fruiting bodies resulting from sawdust supplemented with soya beans at the concentration of 20 % recorded the highest content of fibers (6.38 %). In conclusion, the results indicate that the substrate has a significant impact on the growth and productivity of the king oyster mushroom, the substrate of wheat straw has been superior in terms of phenological, morphological and productive characteristics, while the substrate containing the sawdust has been superior in the quality of the mushroom, so we can Select the most appropriate substrate according to the purpose of agriculture.
Under the patronage of Dr. Magda Mohammed Mofleh, Director General of GCSAR, the first meeting of GSP National Team was held on 3 July 2018, in the presence of Dr. Bahaa Al-rahban, Deputy of Director General. Dr. Manhal Alzoubi presented the importance of establishing a national team to work with The Global soil Partnership GSP, the Five Pillars of GSP, Syria chaired the second pillar, the NENA work Plan, the Global Soil Laboratory Network GLOSOLAN, the International Network of Soil Information Institutions INSII, International Network of Black Soils INBS, soil doctors programme and the celebration of the World Soil Day.
After the presentation, the national team headquarters and the GIS laboratory were opened in Al-Hijaz and the work of the five pillars was distributed to the national team, furthermore the team was nominated for the international networks
Under the patronage of Minister of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform Ahmed Fatih Al-Qadri and the presence of the deputy Minister Dr. Luay Aslan, the Director General of the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) Dr. Majida Mufleh, the Dupery Director General Dr. Bahaa Alrahban and the head of the Department of Soil Science at the Faculty of Agriculture – University of Damascus a workshop was held on 28 February 2018 at the headquarters of the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform entitled Olive Mill Wastewater OMWW as source of clean energy.
Dr. Ghonwa Khaddour presented the results of her experiment on fermenting the OMWW in an anaerobic way within the biogas digester. The importance of this work was described as: fermentation OMWW that contains phenols by Methane bacteria into biogas and organic fertilizers is safely mean to get clean energy and organic fertilizers, thus it is safe way to solve the problem of OMWW which is produced annually in large quantities and causing pollution of water bodies and the environment.
It is the first time in Syria, GCSAR through a research experiment, recycles olive mill wastewater (OMWW) into a bio-gas and organic fertilizers.
FAO organized a workshop in Tartous Governorate included the 7th Technical Working Group Water and Land Management (TWG-WLM) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, the Ministry of Water Resources, the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research and the General Company for Water Studies, on 16/12/2017. Workshop was opened by Eng. Abdulkareem Alaham, Dr. Magda Mofleh Director General of GCSAR, Dr. Tamam Raad Director General of GCWS and Eng. Ali Al-Rahaia Director Deputy of GCWR.
GCSAR group presented several presentations included “learn lessons, difficulties, and important recommendations in field of irrigation management, irrigation project, water harvesting, extension, water extension and modern irrigation. In addition to suggest a new project about water Hyacinth by using it as a compost and livestock feeding
Within the activities of training entitled (Irrigation management at the farm level and the design and calculations of Sprinkler irrigation) that organized by FAO in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, the Ministry of Water Resources, GCSAR and the General Company for Water Studies, the participants had a field visit to the Mokhtaria Station for Irrigation Research in Homs Governorate, where participants viewed and worked on the following technologies:
• Weather station
• Drip irrigation experiments
• Sprinkler irrigation experiments
• Neutron probe for Soil Moisture determent
• Hydrogel experiment
• LASER land-leveling
• Pumps, fertilizer tank and sand filters
• All research experiments in the station
At the end of the visit, certificates were distributed to the participants.
FAO organizes a training course entitled “Irrigation Management at the Farm, Design and Calculations sprinkler irrigation” in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, the Ministry of Water Resources, the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research and the General Company for Water Studies, on 5/12/2017. The session was opened by Minister Deputy Eng. Abdel-Karim El-Lahham, Dr. Magda Mofleh Director General of GCSAR, Eng. Nazih Al-Refai Director of Agriculture in Homs, Eng. Ismail Ismail Director of Water Resources in Homs, and Dr. Muhammad Manhal Al Zuobi.
The course included a presentation by Dr. Magda Mafleh entitled “Activities of GCSAR in Water Research and Irrigation”, training lectures are sprinkler irrigation, design and hydraulic calculations, soil water relationship, water requirements, fertilization, irrigation scheduling and alternatives of fertilizer. At the end of the session، The participants took a field tour to the Water and Irrigation Research Station at Mukhtariya.
Under the patronage of the Director General of the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Dr. Magda Mofleh, held the annual meeting of the Natural Resources Research Administration (ANRR) at the headquarters of ANRR to discuss the research plan of the Administration in presence of the Director General Deputy, Directors of Research Administrations, Heads of Research Centers, Heads of Natural Resources Research Departments in the Syrian governorates, Heads of Research Departments and researchers, the meeting discussed the research plan for 2018 and the most important results in field of water requirements for crops, water planning, irrigation water quality, surface water resources, rainwater harvesting, soil fertility, plant nutrition, soil conservation, conservation agriculture, GIS, remote sensing, , soil chemistry and physics, environment, forestry and pastures. Meanwhile, the cooperation with international organizations was discussed. Furthermore, the joint researches with the Research Administrations in the field of water and fertilizers requirements for newly adopted varieties of crop and vegetable in Syria were discussed.
Under the patronage of the Minister of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, Mr. Ahmed Fatih Al-Qadri, the Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Drylands (ACSAD) held a workshop on the Encyclopedia of Sand Dunes in the Arab World on 27/11/2017 at the headquarters of ACSAD in Syria. The Minister of Local Administration and Environment, the Director General of ACSAD, Mrs. Magda Mafleh, Director General of the GCSAR, the Director of the Desert Research Center in Egypt, the Director of the Research Institute of Arid Regions in Medenine, Tunisia, the Captain of Agricultural Engineers in Egypt and some Arab Ambassadors.
Director General of the GCSAR, participated in the workshop, which includes the creation of a scientific reference on sand dunes, the work on the maintenance, stabilization of these dunes, reducing their march to combat and manage desertification in a sustainable manner.
Concerning to the activities of pilot project on drip irrigation by using solar energy that financed and sported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), a meeting was held at the Ministry of Agriculture – Al-Baramka 19/11/2017, with participating the FAO expert Dr. Wael Saif. The meeting was attended by the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR – Administration of Natural Resources Research ANRR, the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (Directorate of Modern Irrigation Transformation, the Energy Directorate and the Directorate of Administrative Development) and the Ministry of Water Resources – General Commission for Water Resources.
The meeting included a presentation: technical file of the project, which includes designing of irrigation networks for the target area namely Al-Rabiah village – Homs governorate, designing of technical specifications of drip irrigation systems, designing of the solar system for drip irrigation system and results of soil and water analysis in the target area. It was agreed to send project full file to GCSAR after it was completed by the project team and translated by GCSAR and then send it to FAO to start implementation.